Basic reason on which the international crediting is performed is the requirement of the countries with transitive and developing economy in additional means for production and economy development. General process of globalization is shown in economic cooperation of the countries with the developed economy and the countries with transitive economy.
Characteristic feature of economy of the countries, which steels to adhere to a vector of market development, inability of their internal bank systems to complete, timely and to economy long-term financing is. It is connected with resource shortage for investment in the country. In this case also there is a requirement for an international credit or the state external loan.
The international credit represents capital transfer in a plane of economic relations between the countries which is connected with transfer of resources (currency, commodity) in time using on the following terms:
1. Reflexivity – the capital invested in time using, should be returned in full;
2. Paying capability – the country borrower pays for using the credit percentage compensation (the size is stipulated in the crediting agreement) to the country to the creditor;
3. Promptness – the loan is transferred to the borrower in using for a certain period of time (it is stipulated in the credit agreement);
4. Target use – the international credit stands out on in advance stipulated and approved government programs (financing of various industries of production, agricultural industry etc.);
5. Security – a loan repayment guarantee.
Object of the international crediting – money resources. Subjects – private enterprises (firm, bank), the international (regional) credit organizations, the government, official bodies.
Credit money in emerging market economies has certain features. The basic part of international credits is given in shape: a soft credit, a grant under intergovernmental agreements. Reception of loans under preferential interest rates is influenced by such factors, as:
an economy level of development;
economic crisis experience.
Borrowing countries can be divided on two primary groups: the countries with badly developed economy and the countries with rather developed economy. Badly developed countries use official sources as resources of a private origin aren’t accessible to them because of dearness and rigidity of credit conditions for crediting.
In addition to everything, the countries with low developed economy cause mistrust in investors because of the imperfect legislation and inconsistent internal policy. The states with rather developed economy presume to be credited to themselves by private international resources. Economy of these countries is characterized by certain development and integration into world system of internal financial markets.
The international crediting has great value, but its role can’t be estimated unequivocally. Many countries which used external financial flows for development of the economy have become successful. But frequently it is possible to meet and examples of that despite the big international crediting, the state economy couldn’t make a qualitative step forward in the development. Failure basic reasons at external crediting:
economic crisis consequences;
no-purpose use of credit resources;
infringement of a ratio of rates of recalculation of currencies under the agreement (leads to losses of the borrower).
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